Kidney disease


It is estimated that more than 10% of adults in the United States - more than 20 million people - have chronic kidney disease, with varying levels of seriousness (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion).

Kidneys filter waste products from the blood. If this function is compromised, wastes from the blood remain in the body with negative effects on health. Diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, obesity, kidney stones and smoking are major risk factors associated with kidney disease development.

Kidney disease often has no symptoms and can progress to complete kidney failure, a serious condition that has to be treated by dialysis or kidney transplantation. Thousands of people are currently waiting for lifesaving kidney transplants. Diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and cancer are some of the most common conditions that may require kidney transplants (Organ Procurement & Transplantation Network). Adults with diabetes or high blood pressure (or both) have a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease than those who are free of these diseases. Approximately 1 of 3 adults with diabetes and 1 of 5 adults with high blood pressure are also affected by chronic kidney disease (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion).

The maintenance of a balanced diet is fundamental in patients suffering from kidney disease.

Pharmacological treatments, dialysis and the disease itself can lead to micronutrient deficiencies. For instance, a damaged kidney cannot produce an adequate amount of vitamin D. In this situation, supplementation with vitamin D is advisable. It supports bone health and protects against cardiovascular disease. Recent discoveries in the field of natural therapies highlight the relationship between micronutrient intake and kidney problems, including cancer and drug toxicity.


Renal adenocarcinoma, the 17th most frequent cancer worldwide, is associated with a good prognosis – if treated when still localized to the kidney. However, once the cancer has metastasized, prognosis is poor. Recent findings showed that a nutrient formulation, including lysine, proline, arginine and vitamin C, has great potential in the treatment of renal carcinoma.

High dosages of analgesics can also cause severe kidney damage. It was shown that micronutrients can protect the human body against analgesics-induced kidney damage.


This section of the Library collects scientific publications on the effectiveness of micronutrients against kidney disease.

Scientific Studies


June 1, 2016

Risk of vitamin D deficiency in children with kidney disease

June 1, 2016

Vitamin D supplementation in children with chronic kidney disease

June 1, 2016

Green tea extract alleviates kidney damage caused by diabetes

June 1, 2016

Vitamin C, E and selenium prevent kidney damage

June 1, 2016

Vitamin C protects against kidney injury

June 1, 2016

Effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing kidney dysfunction

June 1, 2016

Green tea compounds protect against kidney damage

June 1, 2016

Vitamin C protects against drug-induced kidney damage

June 1, 2016

Low blood levels of arginine are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

June 1, 2016

Protective effects of the tetrapeptide Ac-SDKP against kidney damage

June 1, 2016

Lycopene reduces the risk of chronic kidney disease

June 1, 2016

Beneficial effects of vitamin C in dialysis patients

June 1, 2016

Vitamin C deficiency in patients undergoing dialysis

June 1, 2016

Natural compound EGCG inhibits kidney stone formation

June 1, 2016

Green tea extract improves kidney function

June 1, 2016

Zinc protects against kidney disease

June 1, 2016

Micronutrients protect against kidney damage