This study was undertaken to clarify the mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Ten patients with essential arterial hypertension were treated with oral CoQ10 50 mg twice daily for ten weeks. Plasma CoQ10, serum total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum sodium and potassium, plasma clinostatic and orthostatic renin activity, urinary aldosterone, 24-hour sodium and potassium, and blood pressure were determined before and at the end of the ten-week period. In five patients, peripheral resistances were evaluated with radionuclide angiocardiography. At the end of the treatment, systolic blood pressure decreased from 161.5 ± 5.1 to 142.2 ± 5.3 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 98.5 ± 1.7 to 83.1 ± 2.0 mmHg (P < 0.001). Plasma CoQ10 values increased from 0.69 ± 0.1 μg/ml to 1.95 ± 0.3 μg/ml (P < 0.02). Serum total cholesterol decreased from 227 ± 24 mg/dl to 203.7 ± 20.6 mg/dl (P < 0.01), and serum HDL cholesterol increased from 42 ± 3.0 mg/dl to 45.9 ± 3.0 mg/dl (p < 0.01). Plasma renin activity, serum and urinary sodium and potassium, and urinary aldosterone did not change. CoQ10 significantly decreased total peripheral resistances, thus its antihypertensive effect in essential hypertension is probably based on a diminution of peripheral resistance. CoQ10's beneficial effect on total blood cholesterol is significant because hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for arterial hypertension.
V. Digiesi, Fabrizio Cantini, Gianni Bisi, G.C. Guarino