The force with which blood is pressed against blood vessel walls represents the measurable blood pressure. The level of our blood pressure is directly dependent on various factors, in particular on the pumping force of the heart, the blood volume, and the elasticity of the blood vessels. Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. It can be caused by a too strong pumping function of the heart – which generally leads to an increased upper (systolic) blood pressure value. More frequently, the lower (diastolic) blood pressure value is elevated, a condition that is generally caused by a “spasm” (contraction) of the (smooth) muscle cells of the artery walls, causing the narrowing of the blood vessel diameter and the rise of the (diastolic) pressure. The most frequent cause of this artery spasm is a chronic deficiency of micronutrients in billions of artery wall cells. If high blood pressure conditions persist for a long time, they can lead to damage in other organs, including strokes, coronary heart disease, failure of the kidneys, eyes and other organs.
P D Levinson, A H Iosiphidis, A L Saritelli, P N Herbert, M Steiner