Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
Studies show that around 10-40% of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) positive women will give birth to children who are also infected. This study evaluated the vitamin A status in pregnant women as a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Blood levels of vitamin A were measured in 338 HIV-positive mothers. In 74 mothers who transmitted HIV to their infants vitamin A concentrations were lower than those in 264 mothers who did not transmit HIV to their infants. Based on these results, the authors concluded that maternal vitamin A deficiency contributes to mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Further detail can be found in the study.
Semba RD; Miotti PG; Chiphangwi JD; Saah AJ; Canner JK; Dallabetta GA; Hoover DR. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994 Jun 25; 343(8913):1593-7.